Ines Banjari, Marija Dundović, Jadranka Karuza, Marina Ferenac Kiš, Milica Cvijetić Stokanović

Glasilo Future Volumen 6 broj 5-6 prosinac 2023. / Gazette Future Volume 6 number 5-6 Dec 2023

Objavljeno 31. prosinca 2023. godine. / Published on Dec 31, 2023.

ISSN 2623-6575 (Online)
UDK 63


Izvorni znanstveni rad (original scientific paper)


A grain of salt – a cross-sectional study on the consumption of foods containing iodine and sodium among adults from Croatia

Str./Pp. 01-12


Ines Banjari, Marija Dundović, Jadranka Karuza, Marina Ferenac Kiš, Milica Cvijetić Stokanović


Salt is the main dietary source of two important nutrients: iodine and sodium. Deficiency and excess of both minerals results in a number of adverse health effects. However, social media is full of misinformation regarding iodine’s role in thyroid diseases. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the types of salt consumed and the consumption of foods naturally containing iodine in adults (19 to 69 years old), both genders, in charge of food shopping and/or meal preparation (N=220), in regard to their health status. Only women reported being diagnosed with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (14.1 %) and having infertility issues (16.8 %). Sea salt is the most commonly used (62.7 %), followed by table salt (45.5 %) and Himalaya salt (29.5 %), with many using two or more types of salt simultaneously. Women diagnosed with thyroid disease were most likely to use only Himalaya salt. Foods naturally containing iodine cannot provide sufficient iodine due to low consumption; milk and dairy are consumed once a day, cheese 4 times a week, eggs 1.9 times a week, and saltwater fish 1.2 times a week. Seaweed, as the natural source with the highest content of iodine, is consumed by 5.9 % of the study participants (one has Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). Participants reported high consumption of salt-containing seasonings, and pre-packed, ready-to-eat meals, which contribute significantly to daily sodium intake. Consumption of foods naturally containing iodine is low, but some types of salt could significantly alter iodine’s consumption. More studies are needed to determine the exact dietary iodine consumption, especially in vulnerable populations.

Key words: iodine, sodium, thyroid diseases, dietary sources, salt.




Banjari, I., Dundović, M., Karuza, J., Ferenac Kiš, M., Cvijetić Stokanović, M. (2023). Naslof ~ Tajtl. Glasilo Future, 6(5-6), 01-12.